Wednesday, October 26, 2011

hiMdu scripture


shRuti (Primary scriptures)
-> vEda
--> saMhita (shlOkas)
---> rig
---> yajur
---> sAma
---> atharva
--> brAhmaNa (explanation of saMhita + prayOga)
---> aitarEya (rig)
---> kaushItiki (rig)
---> taittirIya (kRuShNa yajur)
---> shatapatha (shukla yajur)
---> panchaviMsha (sAma)
---> shadviMsha (sAma)
---> samAvidhAna (sAma)
---> aarshEya (sAma)
---> maMtra (sAma)
---> dEvatAdhyaya (sAma)
---> vaMsa (sAma)
---> jaimineeya (sAma)
---> gOpatha (atharva)
--> araNyaka (philosophical interpretation of brAhmaNa)
---> aitarEya (rig)
---> sAMkhyAyana (rig)
---> taittirIya (kRuShNa yajur)
---> bRuhadAranyaka (shukla yajur)
--> upaniShad (essence/knowledge of the vEda)
---> aitarEya (rig)
---> kaushItiki (rig)
---> bhAshkala (rig)
---> mahAnArAyaNa (kRuShNa yajur)
---> mitrAyani (kRuShNa yajur)
---> katakha (kRuShNa yajur)
---> shvEtashvEtara (kRuShNa yajur)
---> IsAvAsya (shukla yajur)
---> bRuhadAraNyaka (shukla yajur)
---> chAndOgya (sAma)
---> kEna (sAma)
---> prashNa (atharva)
---> muMDaka (atharva)
---> mAMDUkya (atharva)
-> vEdAMga
--> shikSha [of pANini] (Phonetics)
--> vyAkaraNa [of pANini] (Grammar)
--> ChaMdas [of piMgaLAcArya] (Metre)
--> nirukta [of yAska] (Etymology)
--> jyOtiSha [of gArga] (Astronomy/Astrology)
--> kalpas (prayOga or Ritual)
---> shrauta (Ritual of sacrifices)
---> gRuhya (Concerning domestic life)
---> dharma (Ethics and moral code)
---> shulbha (Geometry/measurements pertaining to sacrifices)

smRuti (Secondary scriptures dealing with moral code)
-> dharma shAstras (18 in all, but chiefly)
--> Manu (satya yuga)
--> Yajnavalkya (trEtA yuga)
--> Sankha and Likhita (dvApara Yuga)
--> Parasara (kali Yuga)

itihAsa (Treatises)
-> rAmAyaNa
-> yOgAvasiShTha
-> mahAbhArata
-> harivaMSa kAvya

purANa (Mythological and Historical record)
-> 18 main purANas [viz.
viShNu purANa
nArada purANa
bhAgavata purANa
garuDa purANa
padma purANa
varAha purANa
brahma purANa
brahmAMDa purANa
brahma vaivarta purANa
mArkAMDEya purANa
bhavishya purANa
vAmana purANa
matsya purANa
kUrma purANa
liMga purANa
shiva purANa
skAMda purANa
agni purANa]
each dealing with:
--> sarga (Creation of fundamental elements - primary creation)
--> pratisarga (Creation of variety - secondary creation)
--> Manvantara* (terms of Manus)
--> vaMSa (Solar and Lunar dynasties)
--> vaMSAnucarita (Biographies),

[6 purANas dedicated to viShNu (sAttvika), 6 to brahma (rAjasika), and 6 to shiva (tAmasika)]
There are also an equal number of secondary or upa-purANas]

* Time calculation
1 human year = 1 dEva ahOrAtra (1 day + 1 night of the dEvas)
360 ahOrAtra = 1 dEva vatsara
12000 dEva vatsara = 1 chaturyuga**
71 chaturyugas = 1 manvaMtara (lifetime of a manu)
14 manvaMtaras = 1 kalpa (1 day of brahma)
2 kalpas = 1 brahma ahOrAtra
360 days of brahma = 1 brahma varSha
100 brahma varsha = 1 lifespan of brahma

[A total of 14 manvaMtaras are defined in paurANik lore:
---> svayaMbhuva manu, yaj~Ja manvaMtara
---> svarocisha manu, vibhu manvaMtara
---> uttama manu, satyasEna manvaMtara
---> tAmasa mana, hari manvaMtara
---> raivata manu, vaikuMtha manvaMtara
---> chakshusha manu, ajita manvaMtara
---> vaivasvata manu, vAmana manvaMtara (Current manvaMtara)
---> savarNi manu, sArvabhauma manvaMtara
---> daksha-savarNi manu, rishabha manvaMtara
---> brahma-savarNi manu, vishvakasEna manvaMtara
---> dharma-savarNi manu, dharmasEtu manvaMtara
---> rudra-savarNi manu, sudhAma manvaMtara
---> dEva-savarNi manu, yOgEshvara manvaMtara
---> iMdra-savarNi manu, bRuhadbhAnu manvaMtara]

** chaturyuga = 4800 dEva vatsara of kRuta yuga, 3600 of trEta, 2400 of dvApara and 1200 of kali yuga = 12000 dEva vatsaras

Note: AryabhaTTa seems to corroborate this by saying: 
4,320,000 revolutions of the sun [years] to a yuga (assumed chaturyuga)
From above: 12000 * 360 = 4,320,000


Agama (Theological treatises and manuals of worship)
-> vaiShNava Agama (Glorifying viShNu)
-> shaiva Agama (Glorifying shiva)
-> shakta Agama (Glorifying Shakti/Mother goddess)

darshana (Philosophical/Intellectual treatises)
-> nyAya (of gautama)
-> vaishEShika (of kanada)
-> shAMkhya (of kapila)
-> yOga (of patAMjali)
-> pUrva mImAmsa (of jaimini)
-> uttara mImAmsa (of bAdarAyaNa)
Each darshana contains sUtras (formula/aphorism) dealing with the essence of the darshana
-> sUtra
--> bhAShya (elaborate commentary)
--> vRutti (short explanation_
--> varttika (critical study of a bhAShya)
--> vyAkhyAna (exposition)
--> TippaNi (Short explanation, less formal than vRutti)

1 comment:

Ravi said...

1 Chaturyuga = 4.32 Million years
1 Manvantara = 306.72 Million years
1 Kalpa = 4.294 Billion years (roughly the age of the earth)
1 brahma varsha = 3.09 Trillion years
Lifespan of Brahma = 309.17 Trillion years.

I'm amazed that they thought of numbers as big as this. Far cry from 4004 B.C.!